11
Global
Height rank

Shanghai World Financial Center

Shanghai
Height
1
To Tip:

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest point of the building, irrespective of material or function of the highest element (i.e., including antennae, flagpoles, signage and other functional-technical equipment).

494.3 m / 1,622 ft
2
Architectural:

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the architectural top of the building, including spires, but not including antennae, signage, flag poles or other functional-technical equipment. This measurement is the most widely utilized and is employed to define the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) rankings of the "World's Tallest Buildings."

492 m / 1,614 ft
3
Occupied:

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest occupied floor within the building.

474 m / 1,555 ft
1 2 3 Shanghai World Financial Center Outline
Floors
Above Ground

The number of floors above ground should include the ground floor level and be the number of main floors above ground, including any significant mezzanine floors and major mechanical plant floors. Mechanical mezzanines should not be included if they have a significantly smaller floor area than the major floors below. Similarly, mechanical penthouses or plant rooms protruding above the general roof area should not be counted. Note: CTBUH floor counts may differ from published accounts, as it is common in some regions of the world for certain floor levels not to be included (e.g., the level 4, 14, 24, etc. in Hong Kong).

101
Below Ground

The number of floors below ground should include all major floors located below the ground floor level.

3
Height 492.0 m / 1,614 ft
Floors 101
Official Name
The current legal building name.

Shanghai World Financial Center

Other Names
Other names the building has commonly been known as, including former names, common informal names, local names, etc.

SWFC

Type
CTBUH collects data on two major types of tall structures: 'Buildings' and 'Telecommunications / Observation Towers.' A 'Building' is a structure where at least 50% of the height is occupied by usable floor area. A 'Telecommunications / Observation Tower' is a structure where less than 50% of the structure's height is occupied by usable floor area. Only 'Buildings' are eligible for the CTBUH 'Tallest Buildings' lists.

Building

Status
Completed
Architecturally Topped Out
Structurally Topped Out
Under Construction
Proposed
On Hold
Never Completed
Vision
Competition Entry
Canceled
Proposed Renovation
Under Renovation
Renovated
Under Demolition
Demolished

Completed

Completion

2008

Country
The CTBUH follows the United Nations's definition of Country, and thus uses the lists and codes established by that organization.

China

City
The CTBUH follows the United Nations's definition of City, and thus uses the lists and codes established by that organization.

Shanghai

Function
A single-function tall building is defined as one where 85% or more of its usable floor area is dedicated to a single usage. Thus a building with 90% office floor area would be said to be an "office" building, irrespective of other minor functions it may also contain.

A mixed-use tall building contains two or more functions (or uses), where each of the functions occupy a significant proportion of the tower's total space. Support areas such as car parks and mechanical plant space do not constitute mixed-use functions. Functions are denoted on CTBUH "Tallest Building" lists in descending order, e.g., "hotel/office" indicates hotel function above office function.

hotel / office

Structural Material
Steel
Both the main vertical/lateral structural elements and the floor spanning systems are constructed from steel. Note that a building of steel construction with a floor system of concrete planks or concrete slab on top of steel beams is still considered a “steel” structure as the concrete elements are not acting as the primary structure.

Reinforced Concrete
Both the main vertical/lateral structural elements and the floor spanning systems are constructed from concrete which has been cast in place and utilizes steel reinforcement bars.

Precast Concrete
Both the main vertical/lateral structural elements and the floor spanning system are constructed from steel reinforced concrete which has been precast as individual components and assembled together on-site.

Mixed-Structure
Utilizes distinct systems (e.g. steel, concrete, timber), one on top of the other. For example, a steel/concrete indicates a steel structural system located on top of a concrete structural system, with the opposite true of concrete/steel.

Composite
A combination of materials (e.g. steel, concrete, timber) are used together in the main structural elements. Examples include buildings which utilize: steel columns with a floor system of reinforced concrete beams; a steel frame system with a concrete core; concrete-encased steel columns; concrete-filled steel tubes; etc. Where known, the CTBUH database breaks out the materials used in a composite building’s core, columns, and floor spanning separately.

composite

Core
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Concrete Encased Steel
Floor Spanning
Steel
Height
Architectural
Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the architectural top of the building, including spires, but not including antennae, signage, flag poles or other functional-technical equipment. This measurement is the most widely utilized and is employed to define the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) rankings of the "World's Tallest Buildings."

492.0 m / 1,614 ft

To Tip
Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest point of the building, irrespective of material or function of the highest element (i.e., including antennae, flagpoles, signage and other functional-technical equipment).
494.3 m / 1,622 ft
Occupied
Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest occupied floor within the building.
474.0 m / 1,555 ft
Observatory
474.0 m / 1,555 ft
Floors Above Ground
The number of floors above ground should include the ground floor level and be the number of main floors above ground, including any significant mezzanine floors and major mechanical plant floors. Mechanical mezzanines should not be included if they have a significantly smaller floor area than the major floors below. Similarly, mechanical penthouses or plant rooms protruding above the general roof area should not be counted. Note: CTBUH floor counts may differ from published accounts, as it is common in some regions of the world for certain floor levels not to be included (e.g., the level 4, 14, 24, etc. in Hong Kong).

101

Floors Below Ground
The number of floors below ground should include all major floors located below the ground floor level.

3

# of Parking Spaces
Number of Parking Spaces refers to the total number of car parking spaces contained within a particular building.

1100

# of Elevators
Number of Elevators refers to the total number of elevator cars (not shafts) contained within a particular building (including public, private and freight elevators).

91

Top Elevator Speed
Top Elevator Speed refers to the top speed capable of being achieved by an elevator within a particular building, measured in meters per second.

10 m/s

Tower GFA
Tower GFA refers to the total gross floor area within the tower footprint, not including adjoining podiums, connected buildings or other towers within the development.

381,600 m² / 4,107,508 ft²

Rankings
#
11
Tallest in the World
#
8
Tallest in Asia
#
7
Tallest in China
#
2
Tallest in Shanghai
#
7
Tallest Mixed-use Building in the World
#
5
Tallest Mixed-use Building in Asia
#
4
Tallest Mixed-use Building in China
#
2
Tallest Mixed-use Building in Shanghai
#
9
Tallest Composite Building in the World
#
8
Tallest Composite Building in Asia
#
7
Tallest Composite Building in China
#
2
Tallest Composite Building in Shanghai
Construction Schedule
1994

Proposed

1997

Construction Start

2008

Completed

Developer
Architect
Design

Usually involved in the front end design, with a "typical" condition being that of a leadership role through either Schematic Design or Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Architect of Record

Usually takes on the balance of the architectural effort not executed by the "Design Architect," typically responsible for the construction documents, conforming to local codes, etc. May often be referred to as "Executive," "Associate," or "Local" Architect, however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Architect of Record" exclusively.

Structural Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Contractor
Main Contractor

The main contractor is the supervisory contractor of all construction work on a project, management of sub-contractors and vendors, etc. May be referred to as "Construction Manager," however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Main Contractor" exclusively.

Other Consultant

Other Consultant refers to other organizations which provided significant consultation services for a building project (e.g. wind consultants, environmental consultants, fire and life safety consultants, etc).

Façade

These are firms that consult on the design of a building's façade. May often be referred to as "Cladding," "Envelope," "Exterior Wall," or "Curtain Wall" Consultant, however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Façade Consultant" exclusively.

Marketing
Quantity Surveyor
(not specified)
Material Supplier

Material Supplier refers to organizations which supplied significant systems/materials for a building project (e.g. elevator suppliers, facade suppliers, etc).

Cladding
Façade Maintenance Equipment
Formwork
Developer
Architect
Design

Usually involved in the front end design, with a "typical" condition being that of a leadership role through either Schematic Design or Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates; Mori Building; Irie Miyake Architects and Engineers
Architect of Record

Usually takes on the balance of the architectural effort not executed by the "Design Architect," typically responsible for the construction documents, conforming to local codes, etc. May often be referred to as "Executive," "Associate," or "Local" Architect, however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Architect of Record" exclusively.

East China Architectural Design & Research Institute; Shanghai Modern Architectural Design Company
Structural Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

MEP Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Kenchiku Setsubi Sekkei Kenkyusho
Contractor
Main Contractor

The main contractor is the supervisory contractor of all construction work on a project, management of sub-contractors and vendors, etc. May be referred to as "Construction Manager," however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Main Contractor" exclusively.

Other Consultant

Other Consultant refers to other organizations which provided significant consultation services for a building project (e.g. wind consultants, environmental consultants, fire and life safety consultants, etc).

Façade

These are firms that consult on the design of a building's façade. May often be referred to as "Cladding," "Envelope," "Exterior Wall," or "Curtain Wall" Consultant, however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Façade Consultant" exclusively.

Marketing
Quantity Surveyor
(not specified)
Material Supplier

Material Supplier refers to organizations which supplied significant systems/materials for a building project (e.g. elevator suppliers, facade suppliers, etc).

Cladding
Elevator
Hitachi, Ltd.; Otis Elevator Company; thyssenkrupp; Toshiba Elevator and Building Systems Corporation (TELC)
Façade Maintenance Equipment
Formwork
Paint/Coating
AkzoNobel
Sealants
Steel
China Construction Steel Structure Corporation; ArcelorMittal

CTBUH Awards & Distinctions

Best Tall Building Worldwide 2008 Winner

2008 CTBUH Awards

Best Tall Building Asia & Australasia 2008 Winner

2008 CTBUH Awards

10 Year Award 2018 Winner

2018 CTBUH Awards

CTBUH Initiatives

CTBUH Study Examines Tallest Buildings with Dampers

22 August 2018 - CTBUH Research

Vertical Transportation: Ascent & Acceleration

12 September 2017 - CTBUH Research

Videos

16 August 2018 | Shanghai

Five Minutes With: William Pedersen

William Pedersen, Principal, Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates, sat down with CTBUH to discuss his vision for the iconic Shanghai World Financial Center, which was recognized...

Research

12 January 2021

The Global Tall Building Picture: Impact of 2020

CTBUH Research

The tall buildings completed in 2020 have pushed the global average height of the 100 tallest buildings to 399 meters. Across the year, 14 buildings...

About Shanghai World Financial Center

The Shanghai World Financial Center is a symbol of commerce and culture that speaks to the city’s emergence as a global capital. Located in Shanghai’s Pudong District, the mixed-used Shanghai World Financial Center is a vertical city, containing 62 office floors, conference facilities, urban retail and dining spaces, and a 174-room five-star Park Hyatt Hotel at the top—the world’s highest hotel from the 79th to 93rd floors. Above the hotel, at the 94th to 100th floors, is a visitors’ square and observatory.

Shaped by the intersection of two sweeping arcs and a square prism—shapes representing ancient Chinese symbols of heaven and earth, respectively—the tower’s tapering form supports programmatic efficiencies, from large floor plates at its base for offices to rectilinear floors near the top for hotel rooms. Its boldest feature, the 164-foot-wide portal carved through its upper levels relieves the enormous wind pressures on the building. The project activates the ground plane through function-specific entrance volumes (e.g., hotel, office and retail) that extend from its stone-clad base. To further connect the activities of the building to the city, the retail volume is oriented toward a public park planned for an adjacent site.

Optimizing form and function was paramount to the design, integrating the structure, mechanical systems, and exterior envelope in a modular system that repeats every 13 floors to facilitate the fabrication and installation of components, and, in turn, reduce construction time, material waste, and structural inefficiencies. The purity of the tower’s design belies the inherent complexity of the various building systems within, and is readily adaptable to the changing programmatic requirements that often arise during the long timeline of such a large project, as well as to the changing needs of building users.

The project was put on hold in 1995 after the completion of the foundations. When revived in 1999 the height and base dimensions were both increased from the original design. Reinforcing the existing piles to accommodate these changes would have been possible but costly. The new, taller structure would not only have to be made lighter, but would need to resist higher wind loads, which increase exponentially with height.

The project’s structural engineer developed a new system, employing composite mega-columns, diagonal mega-braces, steel out-riggers, belt trusses, and core wall trusses, the pile loads were redistributed to accept increased lateral loads from wind and earthquake. The stiffness of the lateral force-resisting system of the perimeter wall was increased, and as such, the original design for the perimeter framing was abandoned in favor of a diagonal-braced frame with added outrigger trusses coupled to the columns of the mega-structure. This enabled the weight of the building to be reduced by more than 10% and resulted in a reduced cost for the structure, provided for speedier construction, and significantly reduced the material that went into the building and thus made the building even more environmentally friendly.

CTBUH Awards & Distinctions

Best Tall Building Worldwide 2008 Winner

2008 CTBUH Awards

Best Tall Building Asia & Australasia 2008 Winner

2008 CTBUH Awards

10 Year Award 2018 Winner

2018 CTBUH Awards

16 August 2018 | Shanghai

Five Minutes With: William Pedersen

William Pedersen, Principal, Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates, sat down with CTBUH to discuss his vision for the iconic Shanghai World Financial Center, which was recognized...

30 May 2018 | Shanghai

A Bold Icon Communicates a Global City’s Identity to the World

The Shanghai World Financial Center (SWFC) is a symbol of commerce and culture that speaks to the city’s emergence as a global capital. Located in...

19 October 2016 | Shanghai

CTF Guangzhou - Efficiency in Mixed-Use Supertall

Wednesday, October 19, 2016. Gaungzhou, China. Florence Chan of Kohn Pedersen Fox presents at the 2016 China Conference Plenary 4: "Guangzhou Developments" Since the reformation...

27 October 2015 | Shanghai

Developing Tall Buildings and Urban Places, in Japan and Elsewhere

A city is a stage where a wide range of activities take place. An internationally competitive city is one in which diverse human interaction and...

27 October 2015 | Shanghai

Interview: Hiroo Mori

Hiroo Mori of Mori Building is interviewed by Chris Bentley during the 2015 CTBUH New York Conference at the Grand Hyatt New York. Hiroo discusses...

17 September 2014 | Shanghai

Interview: David Malott

Wednesday 17th September 2014. Shanghai, China. David Malott, CTBUH Chairman-Elect / Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates, is interviewed by Chris Bentley during the 2014 CTBUH Shanghai...

16 September 2014 | Shanghai

The Evolution of Building Evacuation Design in China

As a result of the events of September 11th and other natural and man-made disasters, building owners, designers and fire officials have become increasingly aware...

11 June 2013 | Shanghai

Session 2: What Contributes Most to Sustainability in Tall Buildings?

The next generation of tall buildings will be judged on more than sheer height or aesthetic appearance. In the context of sustainability, they will also...

20 September 2012 | Shanghai

Interview: China's Future Tallest

David Malott of Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates is interviewed by Jeff Herzer during the 2012 CTBUH Shanghai Congress at the Jin Mao, Shanghai. David discusses...

20 September 2012 | Shanghai

Interview: Constructing the Shanghai Tower

Jun Xia of Gensler is interviewed by Jeff Herzer during the 2012 CTBUH Shanghai Congress at the Jin Mao, Shanghai. Jun discusses the design and...

12 January 2021

The Global Tall Building Picture: Impact of 2020

CTBUH Research

The tall buildings completed in 2020 have pushed the global average height of the 100 tallest buildings to 399 meters. Across the year, 14 buildings...

20 March 2020

The Tallest 20 in 2020: Predictions vs. Reality

CTBUH Research

In the first edition of the 2012 Journal, CTBUH published a Tall Buildings in Numbers study titled Tallest 20 in 2020: Era of the Megatall—The...

30 January 2020

The Global Tall Building Picture: Impact of 2019

CTBUH Research

In 2019, 126 buildings of 200 meters’ height or greater were completed. This was a 13.7 percent decrease from 146 in 2018. The total number...

28 December 2019

Tall Buildings of the Future as Seen From the Present

SawTeen See, Robert Bird Group Pty Ltd

Aerodynamic damping through the use of vertical long slots reduces the dynamic component of the wind loads on the building. Seminal examples include the three-legged...

31 January 2019

The Global Tall Building Picture: Impact of 2018

CTBUH Research

In 2018, 143 buildings of 200 meters’ height or greater were completed. This is a slight decrease from 2017’s record-breaking total of 147, and it...

01 September 2018

Developments of Structural Systems Toward Mile-High Towers

Kyoung Sun Moon, Yale University School of Architecture

Tall buildings which began from about 40 m tall office towers in the late 19th century have evolved into mixed-use megatall towers over 800 m....

30 July 2018

World’s Tallest Buildings with Dampers

CTBUH Research

As tall buildings continue to be built in seismically-active and cyclone-prone areas, the need to augment the structures of these buildings with dynamic modification devices...

01 February 2018

The Global Tall Building Picture: Impact of 2017

CTBUH Staff, CTBUH

In 2017, 144 buildings of 200 meters’ height or greater were completed. This is the fourth record-breaking year in a row, and it brings the...

01 August 2016

Engineering China’s Skylines

Dasui Wang, East China Architectural Design Institute

Dasui Wang, China Design Master and chief structural engineer for East China Architectural Design Institute (ECADI), is the recipient of the inaugural CITAB - CTBUH...

26 October 2015

Context, Climate, Culture – Investigating Place in Tall Building Design

Robert Goodwin, Perkins + Will

Should a tower in Moscow look like one in Dubai? Once one entered a city and marveled at the unique magic of its architecture –...

22 August 2018

CTBUH Study Examines Tallest Buildings with Dampers

CTBUH has released a Tall Buildings in Numbers (TBIN) interactive data study on the world's tallest buildings with dampers.

12 September 2017

Vertical Transportation: Ascent & Acceleration

CTBUH partnered with Guinness World Records to identify the commercial building with the fastest elevator speeds and longest vertical runs.

17 January 2017

SuperTEC Visit to CTBUH China Office

The CTBUH China Office hosted a visit from SuperTEC, a consortium of researchers and practitioners from Korea University and Dankook University in Seoul.

13 October 2016

Top Company Rankings: The World’s 100 Tallest Buildings

The Council is pleased to announce the Top Company Rankings for numerous disciplines as derived from the list of projects appearing in 100 of the World’s Tallest Buildings.

19 September 2014

Shanghai World Financial Center Technical Tour Report

Delegates met at the lobby of the Shanghai World Financial Center for a tour, led by executives of Mori Building, of one of Shanghai’s most recognizable landmarks.

14 November 2012

CTBUH to Study the Life Cycle of Tall Building Structural Systems

ArcelorMittal has awarded a $300,000 research grant to the CTBUH to study and compare the full range of environmental effects assignable to structural systems in tall buildings.

20 September 2012

Shanghai World Financial Center Technical Tour Report

The current tallest building in China at 492 meters, the World Financial Center offers unparalleled views from its skybridge.

8 December 2011

The Tallest 20 in 2020: Entering the Era of the Megatall

Within this decade we will likely witness not only the world’s first kilometer-tall building, but also the completion of a significant number of buildings over 600 meters.

15 October 2011

Shanghai World Financial Center Chosen as Featured Building

The 492-meter Shanghai World Financial Center has become an icon of Shanghai and China, with its clear and elegant form and revolutionary structural design.

23 March 2011

CTBUH Presents at Suzhou Elevator Expo

CTBUH Communications Manager Jan Klerks presented on Global Tall Buildings Trends as part of the Expo Trade Fair.