6
Global
Height rank

One World Trade Center

New York City
Height
1
To Tip:

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest point of the building, irrespective of material or function of the highest element (i.e., including antennae, flagpoles, signage and other functional-technical equipment).

546.2 m / 1,792 ft
2
Architectural:

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the architectural top of the building, including spires, but not including antennae, signage, flag poles or other functional-technical equipment. This measurement is the most widely utilized and is employed to define the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) rankings of the "World's Tallest Buildings."

541.3 m / 1,776 ft
3
Occupied:

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest occupied floor within the building.

386.5 m / 1,268 ft
1 2 3 One World Trade Center Outline
Floors
Above Ground

The number of floors above ground should include the ground floor level and be the number of main floors above ground, including any significant mezzanine floors and major mechanical plant floors. Mechanical mezzanines should not be included if they have a significantly smaller floor area than the major floors below. Similarly, mechanical penthouses or plant rooms protruding above the general roof area should not be counted. Note: CTBUH floor counts may differ from published accounts, as it is common in some regions of the world for certain floor levels not to be included (e.g., the level 4, 14, 24, etc. in Hong Kong).

94
Below Ground

The number of floors below ground should include all major floors located below the ground floor level.

5
Height 541.3 m / 1,776 ft
Floors 94
Official Name
The current legal building name.

One World Trade Center

Other Names
Other names the building has commonly been known as, including former names, common informal names, local names, etc.

Freedom Tower

Name of Complex
A complex is a group of buildings which are designed and built as pieces of a greater development.

World Trade Center

Type
CTBUH collects data on two major types of tall structures: 'Buildings' and 'Telecommunications / Observation Towers.' A 'Building' is a structure where at least 50% of the height is occupied by usable floor area. A 'Telecommunications / Observation Tower' is a structure where less than 50% of the structure's height is occupied by usable floor area. Only 'Buildings' are eligible for the CTBUH 'Tallest Buildings' lists.

Building

Status
Completed
Architecturally Topped Out
Structurally Topped Out
Under Construction
Proposed
On Hold
Never Completed
Vision
Competition Entry
Canceled
Proposed Renovation
Under Renovation
Renovated
Under Demolition
Demolished

Completed

Completion

2014

Country
The CTBUH follows the United Nations's definition of Country, and thus uses the lists and codes established by that organization.

United States

City
The CTBUH follows the United Nations's definition of City, and thus uses the lists and codes established by that organization.

New York City

Function
A single-function tall building is defined as one where 85% or more of its usable floor area is dedicated to a single usage. Thus a building with 90% office floor area would be said to be an "office" building, irrespective of other minor functions it may also contain.

A mixed-use tall building contains two or more functions (or uses), where each of the functions occupy a significant proportion of the tower's total space. Support areas such as car parks and mechanical plant space do not constitute mixed-use functions. Functions are denoted on CTBUH "Tallest Building" lists in descending order, e.g., "hotel/office" indicates hotel function above office function.

office

Structural Material
Steel
Both the main vertical/lateral structural elements and the floor spanning systems are constructed from steel. Note that a building of steel construction with a floor system of concrete planks or concrete slab on top of steel beams is still considered a “steel” structure as the concrete elements are not acting as the primary structure.

Reinforced Concrete
Both the main vertical/lateral structural elements and the floor spanning systems are constructed from concrete which has been cast in place and utilizes steel reinforcement bars.

Precast Concrete
Both the main vertical/lateral structural elements and the floor spanning system are constructed from steel reinforced concrete which has been precast as individual components and assembled together on-site.

Mixed-Structure
Utilizes distinct systems (e.g. steel, concrete, timber), one on top of the other. For example, a steel/concrete indicates a steel structural system located on top of a concrete structural system, with the opposite true of concrete/steel.

Composite
A combination of materials (e.g. steel, concrete, timber) are used together in the main structural elements. Examples include buildings which utilize: steel columns with a floor system of reinforced concrete beams; a steel frame system with a concrete core; concrete-encased steel columns; concrete-filled steel tubes; etc. Where known, the CTBUH database breaks out the materials used in a composite building’s core, columns, and floor spanning separately.

composite

Core
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Steel
Floor Spanning
Steel
Energy Label

LEED Gold

Official Website

One World Trade Center

Height
Architectural
Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the architectural top of the building, including spires, but not including antennae, signage, flag poles or other functional-technical equipment. This measurement is the most widely utilized and is employed to define the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) rankings of the "World's Tallest Buildings."

541.3 m / 1,776 ft

To Tip
Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest point of the building, irrespective of material or function of the highest element (i.e., including antennae, flagpoles, signage and other functional-technical equipment).
546.2 m / 1,792 ft
Occupied
Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest occupied floor within the building.
386.5 m / 1,268 ft
Observatory
386.5 m / 1,268 ft
Floors Above Ground
The number of floors above ground should include the ground floor level and be the number of main floors above ground, including any significant mezzanine floors and major mechanical plant floors. Mechanical mezzanines should not be included if they have a significantly smaller floor area than the major floors below. Similarly, mechanical penthouses or plant rooms protruding above the general roof area should not be counted. Note: CTBUH floor counts may differ from published accounts, as it is common in some regions of the world for certain floor levels not to be included (e.g., the level 4, 14, 24, etc. in Hong Kong).

94

Floors Below Ground
The number of floors below ground should include all major floors located below the ground floor level.

5

# of Elevators
Number of Elevators refers to the total number of elevator cars (not shafts) contained within a particular building (including public, private and freight elevators).

73

Top Elevator Speed
Top Elevator Speed refers to the top speed capable of being achieved by an elevator within a particular building, measured in meters per second.

10.16 m/s

Tower GFA
Tower GFA refers to the total gross floor area within the tower footprint, not including adjoining podiums, connected buildings or other towers within the development.

325,279 m² / 3,501,274 ft²

Rankings
#
6
Tallest in the World
#
1
Tallest in North America
#
1
Tallest in United States
#
1
Tallest in New York City
#
2
Tallest Office Building in the World
#
1
Tallest Office Building in North America
#
1
Tallest Office Building in United States
#
1
Tallest Office Building in New York City
#
4
Tallest Composite Building in the World
#
1
Tallest Composite Building in North America
#
1
Tallest Composite Building in United States
#
1
Tallest Composite Building in New York City
Construction Schedule
2005

Proposed

2006

Construction Start

2014

Completed

Architect
Design

Usually involved in the front end design, with a "typical" condition being that of a leadership role through either Schematic Design or Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Structural Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Peer Review

The Peer Review Engineer traditionally comments on the information produced by another party, and to render second opinions, but not to initiate what the design looks like from the start.

MEP Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Contractor
Main Contractor

The main contractor is the supervisory contractor of all construction work on a project, management of sub-contractors and vendors, etc. May be referred to as "Construction Manager," however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Main Contractor" exclusively.

Other Consultant

Other Consultant refers to other organizations which provided significant consultation services for a building project (e.g. wind consultants, environmental consultants, fire and life safety consultants, etc).

Cost
Façade

These are firms that consult on the design of a building's façade. May often be referred to as "Cladding," "Envelope," "Exterior Wall," or "Curtain Wall" Consultant, however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Façade Consultant" exclusively.

Façade Maintenance
Vertical Transportation
Wind
Material Supplier

Material Supplier refers to organizations which supplied significant systems/materials for a building project (e.g. elevator suppliers, facade suppliers, etc).

Elevator
Façade Maintenance Equipment
Owner
Current
1 World Trade Center LLC
Past
Silverstein Properties
Developer
Port Authority of New York and New Jersey; The Durst Organization
Architect
Design

Usually involved in the front end design, with a "typical" condition being that of a leadership role through either Schematic Design or Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Structural Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Peer Review

The Peer Review Engineer traditionally comments on the information produced by another party, and to render second opinions, but not to initiate what the design looks like from the start.

MEP Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Project Manager

The CTBUH lists a project manager when a specific firm has been commissioned to oversee this aspect of a tall building’s design/construction. When the project management efforts are handled by the developer, main contract, or architect, this field will be omitted.

STV
Contractor
Main Contractor

The main contractor is the supervisory contractor of all construction work on a project, management of sub-contractors and vendors, etc. May be referred to as "Construction Manager," however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Main Contractor" exclusively.

Other Consultant

Other Consultant refers to other organizations which provided significant consultation services for a building project (e.g. wind consultants, environmental consultants, fire and life safety consultants, etc).

Building Monitoring
Viridian Energy & Environmental, LLC
Civil
Philip Habib & Associates
Cost
Energy Concept
Viridian Energy & Environmental, LLC
Environmental
Arnold & Porter LLP
Façade

These are firms that consult on the design of a building's façade. May often be referred to as "Cladding," "Envelope," "Exterior Wall," or "Curtain Wall" Consultant, however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Façade Consultant" exclusively.

Viridian Energy & Environmental, LLC; Benson Industries, Inc.; Permasteelisa Group
Façade Maintenance
Landscape
Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects; Peter Walker Landscape Architects
Lighting
Marketing
Wordsearch
Observatory
Legends; The Hettema Group
Roofing
Viridian Energy & Environmental, LLC
Security
Ducibella Venter & Santore
Traffic
Philip Habib & Associates
Vertical Transportation
Way Finding
Pentagram
Wind
Material Supplier

Material Supplier refers to organizations which supplied significant systems/materials for a building project (e.g. elevator suppliers, facade suppliers, etc).

Elevator
Façade Maintenance Equipment
Fire Proofing
Grace Construction Products
Interior Partition
Studco Australia Pty Ltd

CTBUH Awards & Distinctions

Best Tall Building Americas 2015 Winner

2015 CTBUH Awards

CTBUH Initiatives

Vertical Transportation: Ascent & Acceleration

12 September 2017 - CTBUH Research

Second CAF-CTBUH Event Examines Tall Building Safety

18 May 2017 - Event

Videos

09 July 2018 | New York City

Five Minutes With: Carla Swickerath

Carla Swickerath, Partner, Studio Libeskind, sat down with CTBUH to discuss the design approach and urban impact of the World Trade Center complex in New...

Research

12 January 2021

The Global Tall Building Picture: Impact of 2020

CTBUH Research

The tall buildings completed in 2020 have pushed the global average height of the 100 tallest buildings to 399 meters. Across the year, 14 buildings...

Global News

15 April 2019

New Architects Brought in for Manchester’s St. Michael’s Tower

Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (SOM) has been brought in to deliver Hodder + Partners’ controversial Saint Michael’s tower in Manchester, with the local practice kept...

About One World Trade Center

One World Trade Center recaptures the New York skyline, reasserts downtown Manhattan’s preeminence as a business center, and establishes a new civic icon for the country. It is a memorable architectural landmark for the city and the nation, and connects seamlessly to the city with linkages to an extensive underground transportation network. Extending the long tradition of American ingenuity in high-rise construction, the design solution is an innovative mix of architecture, structure, urban design, safety, and sustainability.

The tower is a bold icon in the sky that acknowledges the adjacent memorial. While the memorial, carved out of the earth, speaks of the past and of remembrance, One World Trade Center speaks about the future and hope as it rises upward in a faceted form filled with, and reflecting, light. This tower evokes the slender, tapering triangular forms of great New York City icons such as the Chrysler Building and Empire State Building and replaces almost one quarter of the total office space lost on September 11, 2001 in a single building.

As the tower rises from a cubic base, its edges are chamfered back, resulting in a faceted form composed of eight elongated isosceles triangles. At its middle, the tower forms a perfect octagon in plan and then culminates in a glass parapet whose plan is a 150-foot-by-150-foot square, rotated 45 degrees from the base. Its overall effect is that of a crystalline form that captures an ever-evolving display of refracted light. As the sun moves through the sky or pedestrians move around the tower, the surfaces appear like a kaleidoscope, and change throughout the day as light and weather conditions change.

CTBUH Awards & Distinctions

Best Tall Building Americas 2015 Winner

2015 CTBUH Awards

09 July 2018 | New York City

Five Minutes With: Carla Swickerath

Carla Swickerath, Partner, Studio Libeskind, sat down with CTBUH to discuss the design approach and urban impact of the World Trade Center complex in New...

30 October 2017 | New York City

Quay Quarter Tower: Humanizing the High-Rise

Quay Quarter Tower (QQT) will create a stunning new building on the Sydney skyline that sets new benchmarks in office tower design globally and creates...

19 October 2016 | New York City

From San Diego to Guangzhou: The Story of Marketing Tall Buildings

One of the keys to attracting buyers and tenants for a contemporary tall building is a succinct marketing strategy and a robust understanding of how...

12 November 2015 | New York City

2015 Awards - Session 3 Q&A

Yoram Eilon, Seinor Vice President, WSP | Parsons Brinckerhoff, Kenneth Lewis, Managing Partner, Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, Hin Kong Poon, Deputy Chief Development Officer, CapitaLand...

12 November 2015 | New York City

A New Icon for an Evolving City: One World Trade Center, New York City

Yoram Eilon, Senior Vice President, WSP | Parsons Brinckerhoff, and Kenneth Lewis, Managing Partner, Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, speak at the 14th Annual Best Tall...

12 November 2015 | New York City

Interview: One World Trade Center

Chicago, IL. Kenneth A. Lewis, Managing Partner, Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, & Yoram Eilon, Senior Vice President, WSP | Parsons Brinckerhoff, are interviewed by Chris...

06 November 2014 | New York City

Interview: Douglas Durst

Douglas Durst is the chairman and a member of the third generation to lead The Durst Organization, one of New York’s oldest and most respected...

06 November 2014 | New York City

Lynn S. Beedle Lifetime Achievement Medal: A Career of Foresight: Douglas Durst

Douglas Durst is the chairman and a member of the third generation to lead The Durst Organization, one of New York’s oldest and most respected...

06 November 2014 | New York City

Monthly Video: Douglas Durst

Douglas Durst is the chairman and a member of the third generation to lead The Durst Organization, one of New York’s oldest and most respected...

16 September 2014 | New York City

Energy-Efficient Elevator Solutions for High-Rise Buildings

Maximizing capacity with smart and energy-efficient elevator solutions for the high-rise buildings of the world’s inaugural metropolitan century.

12 January 2021

The Global Tall Building Picture: Impact of 2020

CTBUH Research

The tall buildings completed in 2020 have pushed the global average height of the 100 tallest buildings to 399 meters. Across the year, 14 buildings...

20 March 2020

The Tallest 20 in 2020: Predictions vs. Reality

CTBUH Research

In the first edition of the 2012 Journal, CTBUH published a Tall Buildings in Numbers study titled Tallest 20 in 2020: Era of the Megatall—The...

20 March 2020

The Tallest 20 in 2020: Then and Now

CTBUH Research

This research paper undertakes a review of the 2012 report by the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, “Tallest 20 in 2020: Entering the...

30 January 2020

The Global Tall Building Picture: Impact of 2019

CTBUH Research

In 2019, 126 buildings of 200 meters’ height or greater were completed. This was a 13.7 percent decrease from 146 in 2018. The total number...

31 January 2019

The Global Tall Building Picture: Impact of 2018

CTBUH Research

In 2018, 143 buildings of 200 meters’ height or greater were completed. This is a slight decrease from 2017’s record-breaking total of 147, and it...

28 July 2018

Using Height-Relative Variables To Design Tall Buildings

John Jory, Queensland University of Technology

This paper investigates height-variable phenomena in the urban context, and their relevance to the design and performance of tall buildings. It proposes a design approach...

01 July 2018

Towards Resource-Generative Skyscrapers

Mohamed Imam & Branko Kolarevic, University of Calgary

Rapid urbanization, resource depletion, and limited land are further increasing the need for skyscrapers in city centers; therefore, it is imperative to enhance tall building...

01 February 2018

The Global Tall Building Picture: Impact of 2017

CTBUH Staff, CTBUH

In 2017, 144 buildings of 200 meters’ height or greater were completed. This is the fourth record-breaking year in a row, and it brings the...

08 August 2017

Ten Significant Tall Buildings, and the Significant Women Behind Them

Leading Women in Tall Buildings

Recently, there has been a growing and overdue recognition in the architecture discipline that women are under-represented, not just in terms of leadership positions held,...

17 October 2016

The Space Between: Urban Spaces Surrounding Tall Buildings

James Parakh, City of Toronto Planning Division

This paper is intended to introduce the upcoming CTBUH technical guide titled “The Space Between,” which investigates the importance of publicly accessible spaces surrounding tall...

15 April 2019

New Architects Brought in for Manchester’s St. Michael’s Tower

Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (SOM) has been brought in to deliver Hodder + Partners’ controversial Saint Michael’s tower in Manchester, with the local practice kept...

01 March 2019

As One Chicago Lakefront Project Gets a New Deadline, Another is Announced

The owner of the Chicago Spire site could have another year to begin developing the lakefront site, four months after a downtown alderman rejected a...

21 January 2019

“Tower Fifth” Could Become New York City’s Second-Tallest

For decades, the New York City skyline was dominated by one building, the 1,250-foot-tall (381-meter) Empire State Building. But 17 “supertall” skyscrapers — defined as...

12 September 2017

Vertical Transportation: Ascent & Acceleration

CTBUH partnered with Guinness World Records to identify the commercial building with the fastest elevator speeds and longest vertical runs.

18 May 2017

Second CAF-CTBUH Event Examines Tall Building Safety

The CTBUH, in conjunction with the Chicago Architecture Foundation (CAF), held the second of the four-part “Building Tall” lecture series, this time focused on "Securing Tall."

13 October 2016

The Council is pleased to announce the Top Company Rankings for numerous disciplines as derived from the list of projects appearing in 100 of the World’s Tallest Buildings.

28 October 2015

CTBUH 2015 delegates toured One World Trade Center Office Building which is the current tallest building in the Americas.

28 October 2015

CTBUH 2015 delegates toured 30 Park Place which will house the Four Seasons Hotel and Private Residences Downtown New York.

27 October 2015

10_15 CTBUH Leader's Message

CTBUH Board of Trustees, Secretary Craig Gibbons give a CTBUH Leader's Message on 2015 International Conference in New York City.

25 October 2015

This special reception held on the eve of the Conference gave VIPs a unique opportunity to mingle in the fantastic setting of the new One World Trade Center.

17 November 2014

One World Trade Center is Now the World’s Third-Tallest Building

The 541-meter (1,776-foot) One World Trade Center has now become the world’s third-tallest building, according to the height criteria set by the CTBUH.

16 September 2014

Building Movement and Damping Workshop, Shanghai 2014

The Building Movement and Damping Technical Workshop reviewed some of the latest strategies and concepts for helping tall buildings avoid movement in seismic and wind events.

21 May 2014

CTBUH Visits 1WTC, 4WTC and 7WTC

Just six months after CTBUH confirmed One World Trade Center's height, Executive Director Antony Wood and Events Manager Jessica Rinkel toured the building.