24
Global
Height rank

KK100

Shenzhen
Height
1
To Tip:

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest point of the building, irrespective of material or function of the highest element (i.e., including antennae, flagpoles, signage and other functional-technical equipment).

441.8 m / 1,449 ft
2
Architectural:

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the architectural top of the building, including spires, but not including antennae, signage, flag poles or other functional-technical equipment. This measurement is the most widely utilized and is employed to define the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) rankings of the "World's Tallest Buildings."

441.8 m / 1,449 ft
3
Occupied:

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest occupied floor within the building.

427.1 m / 1,401 ft
1 2 3 KK100 Outline
Floors
Above Ground

The number of floors above ground should include the ground floor level and be the number of main floors above ground, including any significant mezzanine floors and major mechanical plant floors. Mechanical mezzanines should not be included if they have a significantly smaller floor area than the major floors below. Similarly, mechanical penthouses or plant rooms protruding above the general roof area should not be counted. Note: CTBUH floor counts may differ from published accounts, as it is common in some regions of the world for certain floor levels not to be included (e.g., the level 4, 14, 24, etc. in Hong Kong).

98
Below Ground

The number of floors below ground should include all major floors located below the ground floor level.

4
Height 441.8 m / 1,449 ft
Floors 98
Official Name
The current legal building name.

KK100

Other Names
Other names the building has commonly been known as, including former names, common informal names, local names, etc.

KK100 Development, Kingkey 100, Kingkey Finance Center Plaza, Kingkey Finance Tower

Type
CTBUH collects data on two major types of tall structures: 'Buildings' and 'Telecommunications / Observation Towers.' A 'Building' is a structure where at least 50% of the height is occupied by usable floor area. A 'Telecommunications / Observation Tower' is a structure where less than 50% of the structure's height is occupied by usable floor area. Only 'Buildings' are eligible for the CTBUH 'Tallest Buildings' lists.

Building

Status
Completed
Architecturally Topped Out
Structurally Topped Out
Under Construction
Proposed
On Hold
Never Completed
Vision
Competition Entry
Canceled
Proposed Renovation
Under Renovation
Renovated
Under Demolition
Demolished

Completed

Completion

2011

Country
The CTBUH follows the United Nations's definition of Country, and thus uses the lists and codes established by that organization.

China

City
The CTBUH follows the United Nations's definition of City, and thus uses the lists and codes established by that organization.

Shenzhen

Function
A single-function tall building is defined as one where 85% or more of its usable floor area is dedicated to a single usage. Thus a building with 90% office floor area would be said to be an "office" building, irrespective of other minor functions it may also contain.

A mixed-use tall building contains two or more functions (or uses), where each of the functions occupy a significant proportion of the tower's total space. Support areas such as car parks and mechanical plant space do not constitute mixed-use functions. Functions are denoted on CTBUH "Tallest Building" lists in descending order, e.g., "hotel/office" indicates hotel function above office function.

hotel / office

Structural Material
Steel
Both the main vertical/lateral structural elements and the floor spanning systems are constructed from steel. Note that a building of steel construction with a floor system of concrete planks or concrete slab on top of steel beams is still considered a “steel” structure as the concrete elements are not acting as the primary structure.

Reinforced Concrete
Both the main vertical/lateral structural elements and the floor spanning systems are constructed from concrete which has been cast in place and utilizes steel reinforcement bars.

Precast Concrete
Both the main vertical/lateral structural elements and the floor spanning system are constructed from steel reinforced concrete which has been precast as individual components and assembled together on-site.

Mixed-Structure
Utilizes distinct systems (e.g. steel, concrete, timber), one on top of the other. For example, a steel/concrete indicates a steel structural system located on top of a concrete structural system, with the opposite true of concrete/steel.

Composite
A combination of materials (e.g. steel, concrete, timber) are used together in the main structural elements. Examples include buildings which utilize: steel columns with a floor system of reinforced concrete beams; a steel frame system with a concrete core; concrete-encased steel columns; concrete-filled steel tubes; etc. Where known, the CTBUH database breaks out the materials used in a composite building’s core, columns, and floor spanning separately.

composite

Core
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Concrete Encased Steel
Floor Spanning
Steel
Energy Label

LEED Gold

Height
Architectural
Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the architectural top of the building, including spires, but not including antennae, signage, flag poles or other functional-technical equipment. This measurement is the most widely utilized and is employed to define the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) rankings of the "World's Tallest Buildings."

441.8 m / 1,449 ft

To Tip
Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest point of the building, irrespective of material or function of the highest element (i.e., including antennae, flagpoles, signage and other functional-technical equipment).
441.8 m / 1,449 ft
Occupied
Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest occupied floor within the building.
427.1 m / 1,401 ft
Observatory
427.1 m / 1,401 ft
Floors Above Ground
The number of floors above ground should include the ground floor level and be the number of main floors above ground, including any significant mezzanine floors and major mechanical plant floors. Mechanical mezzanines should not be included if they have a significantly smaller floor area than the major floors below. Similarly, mechanical penthouses or plant rooms protruding above the general roof area should not be counted. Note: CTBUH floor counts may differ from published accounts, as it is common in some regions of the world for certain floor levels not to be included (e.g., the level 4, 14, 24, etc. in Hong Kong).

98

Floors Below Ground
The number of floors below ground should include all major floors located below the ground floor level.

4

# of Hotel Rooms
Number of Hotel Rooms refers to the total number of hotel rooms contained within a particular building.

249

# of Parking Spaces
Number of Parking Spaces refers to the total number of car parking spaces contained within a particular building.

2000

# of Elevators
Number of Elevators refers to the total number of elevator cars (not shafts) contained within a particular building (including public, private and freight elevators).

66

Top Elevator Speed
Top Elevator Speed refers to the top speed capable of being achieved by an elevator within a particular building, measured in meters per second.

9 m/s

Tower GFA
Tower GFA refers to the total gross floor area within the tower footprint, not including adjoining podiums, connected buildings or other towers within the development.

220,000 m² / 2,368,060 ft²

Rankings
#
24
Tallest in the World
#
18
Tallest in Asia
#
13
Tallest in China
#
2
Tallest in Shenzhen
#
14
Tallest Mixed-use Building in the World
#
12
Tallest Mixed-use Building in Asia
#
10
Tallest Mixed-use Building in China
#
1
Tallest Mixed-use Building in Shenzhen
#
20
Tallest Composite Building in the World
#
18
Tallest Composite Building in Asia
#
13
Tallest Composite Building in China
#
2
Tallest Composite Building in Shenzhen
Construction Schedule
2004

Proposed

2007

Construction Start

2011

Completed

Architect
Design

Usually involved in the front end design, with a "typical" condition being that of a leadership role through either Schematic Design or Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Structural Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

MEP Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Contractor
Main Contractor

The main contractor is the supervisory contractor of all construction work on a project, management of sub-contractors and vendors, etc. May be referred to as "Construction Manager," however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Main Contractor" exclusively.

Material Supplier

Material Supplier refers to organizations which supplied significant systems/materials for a building project (e.g. elevator suppliers, facade suppliers, etc).

Owner/Developer
Shenzhen Kingkey Real Estate Development Co. Ltd
Architect
Design

Usually involved in the front end design, with a "typical" condition being that of a leadership role through either Schematic Design or Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Architect of Record

Usually takes on the balance of the architectural effort not executed by the "Design Architect," typically responsible for the construction documents, conforming to local codes, etc. May often be referred to as "Executive," "Associate," or "Local" Architect, however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Architect of Record" exclusively.

Huasen Architectural & Engineering Designing Consultants Ltd.
Structural Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

MEP Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Contractor
Main Contractor

The main contractor is the supervisory contractor of all construction work on a project, management of sub-contractors and vendors, etc. May be referred to as "Construction Manager," however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Main Contractor" exclusively.

Other Consultant

Other Consultant refers to other organizations which provided significant consultation services for a building project (e.g. wind consultants, environmental consultants, fire and life safety consultants, etc).

Building Monitoring
E.W. COX Hong Kong Limited
Interiors
Laguarda.Low Architects
Landscape
Adrian L. Norman Limited
Lighting
Tino Kwan Lighting Consultants Ltd.
Way Finding
Sandu Environmental Signage
Material Supplier

Material Supplier refers to organizations which supplied significant systems/materials for a building project (e.g. elevator suppliers, facade suppliers, etc).

Steel
China Construction Steel Structure Corporation

CTBUH Awards & Distinctions

Best Tall Building Asia & Australasia 2012 Award of Excellence

2012 CTBUH Awards

CTBUH Initiatives

Top Company Rankings: The World’s 100 Tallest Buildings

13 October 2016 - CTBUH Research

Shenzhen Regional Tour Report

21 September 2014 - Event

Videos

19 October 2016 | Shenzhen

From San Diego to Guangzhou: The Story of Marketing Tall Buildings

One of the keys to attracting buyers and tenants for a contemporary tall building is a succinct marketing strategy and a robust understanding of how...

Research

12 January 2021

The Global Tall Building Picture: Impact of 2020

CTBUH Research

The tall buildings completed in 2020 have pushed the global average height of the 100 tallest buildings to 399 meters. Across the year, 14 buildings...

About KK100

The KK100 development lies between the border of Shenzhen’s business and residential districts in a densely developed area. To facilitate more sustainable development for the fast-growing city, the mixed-use tower was designed to be a hub for transit, provide amenities to the area, and provide an occupant density that would help to reduce urban sprawl and reliance on transportation.

As part of a greater master plan, the site was arranged to include a podium with retail and connections to public transportation, with the tower placed at the southwest end of the site to draw on the views of the city and neighboring Lizhi Park. The site formerly held a residential quarter with poor living conditions. To mitigate the effects of the development on the former residents, a joint initiative was formed which made them stakeholders in the new buildings and maintained the existing community.

The large podium was designed with a response to the site’s foot traffic and context, providing entrances appropriate to the scale and density of the area. A future residential complex will connect to this podium, as well as the tower, to create an integrated development to serve all the needs of its occupants. The main entrance to the tower takes the building skin and pulls it into an inviting curvilinear canopy, funneling in residents and workers.

The tower’s curving form was intended to allude to a fountain of water, symbolizing the wealth and prosperity of the city of Shenzhen. The base of the tower connects to the lower-level programs as well as to the urban fabric at the pedestrian scale. The curved north and south façades are oriented to Hong Kong and the Maipo marshes, while the slender east and west façades taper to the curved apex of the tower, providing less area for morning and evening solar gain.

Levels 4–72 of the building comprise office space, with slightly different floor plates between adjacent levels due to the curve of the tower. The floor-to-floor height is a generous four meters, allowing a maximum of daylight penetration into the work spaces. The layout of the office spaces was generated to provide a great deal of flexibility to meet the needs of various tenants.

Levels 75–95 house the St. Regis Hotel and its own conference and meeting facilities. Hotel visitors arrive at the sky garden lobby on the 94th floor, which opens into a large, open atrium and garden at the top of the building. This level accommodates several fine-dining options as well as panoramic views of the city surrounding the tower. The atrium stretches 16 stories below the sky garden, housing lifts to reach guest rooms and bringing natural light into the core of the hotel section of the tower.

The building aims to be a sustainable example for the city, employing various approaches to create a “green” development. In addition to the building form’s response to the local climate, a free-cooling system was used, as well as a highly developed envelope to improve the performance of the building. Vertical and horizontal fins were employed on the façade to reduce glare and solar gain, increasing the comfort of the inhabitants. Overall, the complex hopes to reduce demands on infrastructure by providing a place where people can work and live, eliminating needs for transit between these uses.

CTBUH Awards & Distinctions

Best Tall Building Asia & Australasia 2012 Award of Excellence

2012 CTBUH Awards

19 October 2016 | Shenzhen

From San Diego to Guangzhou: The Story of Marketing Tall Buildings

One of the keys to attracting buyers and tenants for a contemporary tall building is a succinct marketing strategy and a robust understanding of how...

18 October 2016 | Shenzhen

Urban Development and Tall Buildings in Shenzhen

Tuesday October 18, 2016. Shenzhen, China. Chongguang Xu of Shenzhen Municipal Government, presents at the 2016 China Conference Session 7b: Shenzhen Bay Development. This presentation...

17 October 2016 | Shenzhen

Panel Discussion: Future Cities: What are the Biggest Threats and Opportunities?

Monday, October 17, 2016. Shenzhen, China. A panel discussing the challenges of growing urban populations throughout the globe.

11 June 2013 | Shenzhen

Interview: Integration of Tall Buildings

Sir Terry Farrell & Stephan Krummeck of Farrells are interviewed by Jeff Herzer during the 2013 CTBUH London Conference at The Brewery, London. Terry and...

11 June 2013 | Shenzhen

Session 10: Developing High-Rise Living in the European Context

An increase in high-rise living in traditionally commerce-focused urban centers has been a key urban trend in cities across the entire globe. This has great...

11 June 2013 | Shenzhen

Session 6: The Urban and Public Realm

Tall buildings will be part of our environment in an increasing number of cities, whose ages span centuries. If it is to be integral to...

12 January 2021

The Global Tall Building Picture: Impact of 2020

CTBUH Research

The tall buildings completed in 2020 have pushed the global average height of the 100 tallest buildings to 399 meters. Across the year, 14 buildings...

30 January 2020

The Global Tall Building Picture: Impact of 2019

CTBUH Research

In 2019, 126 buildings of 200 meters’ height or greater were completed. This was a 13.7 percent decrease from 146 in 2018. The total number...

31 January 2019

The Global Tall Building Picture: Impact of 2018

CTBUH Research

In 2018, 143 buildings of 200 meters’ height or greater were completed. This is a slight decrease from 2017’s record-breaking total of 147, and it...

01 February 2018

The Global Tall Building Picture: Impact of 2017

CTBUH Staff, CTBUH

In 2017, 144 buildings of 200 meters’ height or greater were completed. This is the fourth record-breaking year in a row, and it brings the...

17 October 2016

Density Our Strength: The Linear City in Practice

Stefan Krummeck & Ben MacLeod, Farrells

Hong Kong is unique as a linear city. More than 7 million people reside, mainly in high-rise buildings, in a series of highly dense coastal...

01 September 2015

Innovative Technologies and Their Application on the Construction of a 100-Plus-Story Skyscraper

Ye Haowen, China State Construction Engineering Corporation

Experience on the construction of several 100-plus-story skyscrapers including Guangzhou West Tower, Guangzhou East Tower, and Shenzhen’s KK100 is described considering the increasingly strong development...

23 September 2012

The Tallest 15 Cities in China

CTBUH Research

With over 1.3 billion citizens and a rapidly urbanizing population, China is developing tall buildings more than any other country globally. Currently it has 239...

19 September 2012

Urban Models for the 21st Century

Stefan Krummeck, TFP Farrells Limited

Recently, Asia has witnessed an astonishing proliferation of high-rise buildings. Towers are growing in numbers and in height which presents enormous opportunities and great challenges....

12 September 2012

Big Shifts Ahead as China Enters New Era

Kevin Brass, CTBUH

Reports out of China these days are a jumble of mixed messages and conflicting imagery. One night network business news programs spotlight video of empty...

31 December 2011

Year in Review: Tall Trends of 2011

Nathaniel Hollister & Antony Wood, CTBUH

The annual story is becoming a familiar one: 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, and now 2011 have each sequentially broke the record for the most 200...

13 October 2016

Top Company Rankings: The World’s 100 Tallest Buildings

The Council is pleased to announce the Top Company Rankings for numerous disciplines as derived from the list of projects appearing in 100 of the World’s Tallest Buildings.

21 September 2014

Shenzhen Regional Tour Report

In Shenzhen attendees toured the sky lobby of Ping An Finance Center. Attendees enjoyed a traditional Chinese lunch at the Four Seasons Hotel before continuing to KK100.

15 May 2013

KK100 Chosen as Featured Building

As part of the larger KK100 development, the new curved tower is a powerful addition to Shenzhen.

23 September 2012

Hong Kong & Shenzhen Tour Report: Touring Two Tall Cities

Delegates from the Congress flew to Hong Kong to visit one of the tallest cities in the world. The second day included a side trip to Shenzhen, including a private tour of KK100.

31 December 2011

CTBUH Releases Year in Review: Tall Trends of 2011

The annual story is becoming a familiar one: 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, and now 2011 have each sequentially broke the record for the most 200 meter or higher buildings completed in a given year. Once again, more 200 m+ buildings were completed in 2011 than in any year previous.

7 December 2011

A Private View: CTBUH Tour of KK100 Tower

CTBUH held an exclusive insight and tour of the recently completed 442 meter Kingkey 100 Tower, hosted by the CTBUH Hong Kong Representative, Stefan Krummeck.