30
Global
Height rank

Jin Mao Tower

Shanghai
Height
1
To Tip:

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest point of the building, irrespective of material or function of the highest element (i.e., including antennae, flagpoles, signage and other functional-technical equipment).

420.5 m / 1,380 ft
2
Architectural:

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the architectural top of the building, including spires, but not including antennae, signage, flag poles or other functional-technical equipment. This measurement is the most widely utilized and is employed to define the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) rankings of the "World's Tallest Buildings."

420.5 m / 1,380 ft
3
Occupied:

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest occupied floor within the building.

348.4 m / 1,143 ft
1 2 3 Jin Mao Tower Outline
Floors
Above Ground

The number of floors above ground should include the ground floor level and be the number of main floors above ground, including any significant mezzanine floors and major mechanical plant floors. Mechanical mezzanines should not be included if they have a significantly smaller floor area than the major floors below. Similarly, mechanical penthouses or plant rooms protruding above the general roof area should not be counted. Note: CTBUH floor counts may differ from published accounts, as it is common in some regions of the world for certain floor levels not to be included (e.g., the level 4, 14, 24, etc. in Hong Kong).

88
Below Ground

The number of floors below ground should include all major floors located below the ground floor level.

3
Height 420.5 m / 1,380 ft
Floors 88
Official Name
The current legal building name.

Jin Mao Tower

Other Names
Other names the building has commonly been known as, including former names, common informal names, local names, etc.

Jin Mao Building

Type
CTBUH collects data on two major types of tall structures: 'Buildings' and 'Telecommunications / Observation Towers.' A 'Building' is a structure where at least 50% of the height is occupied by usable floor area. A 'Telecommunications / Observation Tower' is a structure where less than 50% of the structure's height is occupied by usable floor area. Only 'Buildings' are eligible for the CTBUH 'Tallest Buildings' lists.

Building

Status
Completed
Architecturally Topped Out
Structurally Topped Out
Under Construction
Proposed
On Hold
Never Completed
Vision
Competition Entry
Canceled
Proposed Renovation
Under Renovation
Renovated
Under Demolition
Demolished

Completed, 1999

Country
The CTBUH follows the United Nations's definition of Country, and thus uses the lists and codes established by that organization.

China

City
The CTBUH follows the United Nations's definition of City, and thus uses the lists and codes established by that organization.

Shanghai

Postal Code

200121

Function
A single-function tall building is defined as one where 85% or more of its usable floor area is dedicated to a single usage. Thus a building with 90% office floor area would be said to be an "office" building, irrespective of other minor functions it may also contain.

A mixed-use tall building contains two or more functions (or uses), where each of the functions occupy a significant proportion of the tower's total space. Support areas such as car parks and mechanical plant space do not constitute mixed-use functions. Functions are denoted on CTBUH "Tallest Building" lists in descending order, e.g., "hotel/office" indicates hotel function above office function.

hotel / office

Structural Material
Steel
Both the main vertical/lateral structural elements and the floor spanning systems are constructed from steel. Note that a building of steel construction with a floor system of concrete planks or concrete slab on top of steel beams is still considered a “steel” structure as the concrete elements are not acting as the primary structure.

Reinforced Concrete
Both the main vertical/lateral structural elements and the floor spanning systems are constructed from concrete which has been cast in place and utilizes steel reinforcement bars.

Precast Concrete
Both the main vertical/lateral structural elements and the floor spanning system are constructed from steel reinforced concrete which has been precast as individual components and assembled together on-site.

Mixed-Structure
Utilizes distinct systems (e.g. steel, concrete, timber), one on top of the other. For example, a steel/concrete indicates a steel structural system located on top of a concrete structural system, with the opposite true of concrete/steel.

Composite
A combination of materials (e.g. steel, concrete, timber) are used together in the main structural elements. Examples include buildings which utilize: steel columns with a floor system of reinforced concrete beams; a steel frame system with a concrete core; concrete-encased steel columns; concrete-filled steel tubes; etc. Where known, the CTBUH database breaks out the materials used in a composite building’s core, columns, and floor spanning separately.

composite

Core
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Concrete Filled Steel
Floor Spanning
Steel
Official Website

Jin Mao Building

Height
Architectural
Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the architectural top of the building, including spires, but not including antennae, signage, flag poles or other functional-technical equipment. This measurement is the most widely utilized and is employed to define the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) rankings of the "World's Tallest Buildings."

420.5 m / 1,380 ft

To Tip
Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest point of the building, irrespective of material or function of the highest element (i.e., including antennae, flagpoles, signage and other functional-technical equipment).
420.5 m / 1,380 ft
Occupied
Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest occupied floor within the building.
348.4 m / 1,143 ft
Observatory
340.1 m / 1,116 ft
Floors Above Ground
The number of floors above ground should include the ground floor level and be the number of main floors above ground, including any significant mezzanine floors and major mechanical plant floors. Mechanical mezzanines should not be included if they have a significantly smaller floor area than the major floors below. Similarly, mechanical penthouses or plant rooms protruding above the general roof area should not be counted. Note: CTBUH floor counts may differ from published accounts, as it is common in some regions of the world for certain floor levels not to be included (e.g., the level 4, 14, 24, etc. in Hong Kong).

88

Floors Below Ground
The number of floors below ground should include all major floors located below the ground floor level.

3

# of Parking Spaces
Number of Parking Spaces refers to the total number of car parking spaces contained within a particular building.

993

# of Elevators
Number of Elevators refers to the total number of elevator cars (not shafts) contained within a particular building (including public, private and freight elevators).

61

Top Elevator Speed
Top Elevator Speed refers to the top speed capable of being achieved by an elevator within a particular building, measured in meters per second.

9 m/s

Tower GFA
Tower GFA refers to the total gross floor area within the tower footprint, not including adjoining podiums, connected buildings or other towers within the development.

289,500 m² / 3,116,152 ft²

Rankings
#
30
Tallest in the World
#
20
Tallest in Asia
#
15
Tallest in China
#
3
Tallest in Shanghai
#
18
Tallest Mixed-use Building in the World
#
14
Tallest Mixed-use Building in Asia
#
12
Tallest Mixed-use Building in China
#
3
Tallest Mixed-use Building in Shanghai
#
23
Tallest Composite Building in the World
#
20
Tallest Composite Building in Asia
#
15
Tallest Composite Building in China
#
3
Tallest Composite Building in Shanghai
Construction Schedule
1994

Construction Start

1999

Completed

Owner/Developer
Architect
Design

Usually involved in the front end design, with a "typical" condition being that of a leadership role through either Schematic Design or Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Architect of Record

Usually takes on the balance of the architectural effort not executed by the "Design Architect," typically responsible for the construction documents, conforming to local codes, etc. May often be referred to as "Executive," "Associate," or "Local" Architect, however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Architect of Record" exclusively.

Structural Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Engineer of Record

The Engineer of Record takes the balance of the engineering effort not executed by the “Design Engineer,” typically responsible for construction documents, conforming to local codes, etc.

MEP Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Contractor
Main Contractor

The main contractor is the supervisory contractor of all construction work on a project, management of sub-contractors and vendors, etc. May be referred to as "Construction Manager," however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Main Contractor" exclusively.

Other Consultant

Other Consultant refers to other organizations which provided significant consultation services for a building project (e.g. wind consultants, environmental consultants, fire and life safety consultants, etc).

Façade

These are firms that consult on the design of a building's façade. May often be referred to as "Cladding," "Envelope," "Exterior Wall," or "Curtain Wall" Consultant, however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Façade Consultant" exclusively.

Quantity Surveyor
Vertical Transportation
(not specified)
Material Supplier

Material Supplier refers to organizations which supplied significant systems/materials for a building project (e.g. elevator suppliers, facade suppliers, etc).

Cladding
Construction Hoists
Steel

Retrofit Companies Involved

Other Consultant

Other Consultant refers to other organizations which provided significant consultation services for a building project (e.g. wind consultants, environmental consultants, fire and life safety consultants, etc).

Façade Maintenance
Material Supplier

Material Supplier refers to organizations which supplied significant systems/materials for a building project (e.g. elevator suppliers, facade suppliers, etc).

Façade Maintenance Equipment
Owner/Developer
Architect
Design

Usually involved in the front end design, with a "typical" condition being that of a leadership role through either Schematic Design or Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Architect of Record

Usually takes on the balance of the architectural effort not executed by the "Design Architect," typically responsible for the construction documents, conforming to local codes, etc. May often be referred to as "Executive," "Associate," or "Local" Architect, however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Architect of Record" exclusively.

Structural Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Engineer of Record

The Engineer of Record takes the balance of the engineering effort not executed by the “Design Engineer,” typically responsible for construction documents, conforming to local codes, etc.

MEP Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Contractor
Main Contractor

The main contractor is the supervisory contractor of all construction work on a project, management of sub-contractors and vendors, etc. May be referred to as "Construction Manager," however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Main Contractor" exclusively.

Other Consultant

Other Consultant refers to other organizations which provided significant consultation services for a building project (e.g. wind consultants, environmental consultants, fire and life safety consultants, etc).

Façade

These are firms that consult on the design of a building's façade. May often be referred to as "Cladding," "Envelope," "Exterior Wall," or "Curtain Wall" Consultant, however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Façade Consultant" exclusively.

Quantity Surveyor
Vertical Transportation
(not specified)
Material Supplier

Material Supplier refers to organizations which supplied significant systems/materials for a building project (e.g. elevator suppliers, facade suppliers, etc).

Ceiling
Armstrong World Industries
Cladding
Construction Hoists
Elevator
Mitsubishi Elevator and Escalator
Paint/Coating
AkzoNobel
Steel
Arbed; Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Corporation

Retrofit Companies Involved

Other Consultant

Other Consultant refers to other organizations which provided significant consultation services for a building project (e.g. wind consultants, environmental consultants, fire and life safety consultants, etc).

Façade Maintenance
Material Supplier

Material Supplier refers to organizations which supplied significant systems/materials for a building project (e.g. elevator suppliers, facade suppliers, etc).

Façade Maintenance Equipment

CTBUH Awards & Distinctions

Performance Award 2014 Award of Excellence

2014 CTBUH Awards

CTBUH Initiatives

2019 International Forum on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat

28 August 2019 - Event

SuperTEC Visit to CTBUH China Office

17 January 2017 - Event

Videos

03 November 2016 | Shanghai

Innovations in Building Performance and Resiliency: Pin-Fuse Seismic Systems

Throughout history, it has been proven time and again that the simplest innovations can often offer the greatest and widest ranging impact. This is certainly...

Research

28 October 2019

Fifty Years of Fire Safety In Supertall Buildings

Peter Weismantle, AS+GG; James Antell, Telgian Engineering & Consulting

As international design teams participated in the development of high-rise structures around the world, many of the concepts of fire-safe design first introduced in the...

About Jin Mao Tower

The Jin Mao Tower, a mixed-use complex containing offices, convention space and a hotel and in 2013 became the tallest and the longest-operated building in China to receive a LEED-EB: OM (Existing Buildings: Operations + Management) Gold certification. Its high performance has been achieved with the assistance of a computerized energy management system, which has been in place since the building opened, and is integrated with the broader enterprise asset management (EAM) system.

Management tracks a variety of performance metrics, including electricity, water, and natural gas consumption from month to month, and maintains key performance indicators (KPIs) around non-energy metrics, such as preventative maintenance, fixed asset purchases, requests for repairs, complaints, cost analysis and equipment information records. The paperless processing associated with the system also contributes to the building’s low carbon-emission footprint. Beginning in August 2013, to promote indoor air quality (IAQ) the building’s managers began tracking PM 2.5 particulate values in office areas, and broadcasting the results daily on social media.

These performance measurement approaches have been augmented by consulting with the Association of German Engineers, which has helped Jin Mao develop computerized equipment management systems to help maintenance staff optimize the equipment life cycle, quality and cost. A fluid energy metering system measures the flow of water through 89 sensors distributed throughout the building. An electricity metering system remotely and automatically measures electricity consumption of large equipment through a network of 300 sensors, allowing comparison of current and historical energy consumption. Together, these systems provide an objective data foundation for energy-use analysis.

Each month, building managers hold an energy-consumption analysis meeting and clarify energy expenditure of each main equipment category, including water, electricity, and natural gas. The management team actively compares year-on-year and month-to-month consumption statistics, referencing the building automation system’s daily control log, to make informed decisions about where energy-saving strategies should be implemented next. Specific action items are then drawn up for specific people, who take charge of implementing these measures.

CTBUH Awards & Distinctions

Performance Award 2014 Award of Excellence

2014 CTBUH Awards

03 November 2016 | Shanghai

Innovations in Building Performance and Resiliency: Pin-Fuse Seismic Systems

Throughout history, it has been proven time and again that the simplest innovations can often offer the greatest and widest ranging impact. This is certainly...

16 September 2014 | Shanghai

The Evolution of Building Evacuation Design in China

As a result of the events of September 11th and other natural and man-made disasters, building owners, designers and fire officials have become increasingly aware...

07 November 2013 | Shanghai

Fazlur Khan Lifetime Achievement Medal: Geotechnics for the World’s Tallest

Clyde Baker has performed geotechnical engineering for seven of the 16 tallest buildings in the world, and a major portion of the high-rise buildings built...

20 September 2012 | Shanghai

Interview: Constructing the Shanghai Tower

Jun Xia of Gensler is interviewed by Jeff Herzer during the 2012 CTBUH Shanghai Congress at the Jin Mao, Shanghai. Jun discusses the design and...

20 September 2012 | Shanghai

The Design Process of Complex Architectural Facades

Facades form the identity and functionality of high-rise buildings. The “design process” for complex bespoke architectural high-rise facades is an abstract term that in reality...

19 September 2012 | Shanghai

Development of Innovative Structures for Supertall and Unique Towers

As tall buildings grow to greater heights and strive to incorporate more unique forms, clarity in the development of the structural system at conceptual design...

19 September 2012 | Shanghai

From Jin Mao to Kingdom: Search for an Asian Supertall Vernacular

This presentation presents the evolution of Mr. Smith’s career as a designer of supertall buildings, from Shanghai’s Jin Mao Tower, completed in 1999, to Kingdom...

19 September 2012 | Shanghai

Interview: Creating Spaces

Gordon Gill of Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture is interviewed by Jeff Herzer during the 2012 CTBUH Shanghai Congress at the Jin Mao, Shanghai....

19 September 2012 | Shanghai

Interview: Kingdom Tower

Adrian Smith of Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture is interviewed by Jeff Herzer during the 2012 CTBUH Shanghai Congress at the Jin Mao, Shanghai....

19 September 2012 | Shanghai

Interview: Marketing of Tall Buildings

William Murray of Wordsearch is interviewed by Jeff Herzer during the 2012 CTBUH Shanghai Congress at the Jin Mao, Shanghai. William discusses the marketing of...

28 October 2019

Fifty Years of Fire Safety In Supertall Buildings

Peter Weismantle, AS+GG; James Antell, Telgian Engineering & Consulting

As international design teams participated in the development of high-rise structures around the world, many of the concepts of fire-safe design first introduced in the...

17 October 2016

SOM and China: Evolving Skyscraper Design Amid Rapid Urban Growth

Scott Duncan & Yue Zhu, SOM

China’s rapid urban and economic growth has challenged designers, engineers, and planners to innovate and collaborate to meet the needs of a changing country. Skidmore,...

26 October 2015

Context, Climate, Culture – Investigating Place in Tall Building Design

Robert Goodwin, Perkins + Will

Should a tower in Moscow look like one in Dubai? Once one entered a city and marveled at the unique magic of its architecture –...

16 September 2014

The Evolution of Building Evacuation Design in China

Fang Li, James Antell & Martin Reiss, RJA Group

As a result of the events of September 11th and other natural and man-made disasters, building owners, designers and fire officials have become increasingly aware...

19 September 2012

20 Years of High-Rise Fire Safety: From Jin Mao to Kingdom Tower

James H. Antell, RJA; Peter A. Weismantle, Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture

This paper will discuss the evolution of fire safety concepts in the recent generation of high rise buildings starting with “early” 1990’s designs in China...

19 September 2012

From Jin Mao to Kingdom: Search for an Asian Supertall Vernacular

Adrian Smith, Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture

The paper traces the evolution of Mr. Smith’s career as a designer of supertall buildings, the Jin Mao Tower (1999) to Kingdom Tower, to be...

27 January 2012

Debating Tall: A Supertall Future in the US?

Adrian Smith, Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture; Paul Beitler, Beitler Real Estate Services LLC

In 1990, only 11 buildings in the world could be counted as a “supertall” (defined as a building over 300 meters tall), and all but...

01 February 2010

Structural Design of Reinforced Concrete Tall Buildings

Ali Sherif S. Rizk, Dar Al-Handasah Consultants

During the last 12 years the Structural Engineering Department at Dar Al-Handasah has designed 45 mixed-use tall buildings in different Arab countries. The designed towers...

01 May 2009

Performance-Based Evaluation for the 450m Nanjing Greenland Financial Center Main Tower

Charles M. Besjak, Brian J. McElhatten & Preetam Biswas, SOM

In order to obtain seismic review approval for the Nanjing State-Owned Assets & Greenland Financial Center's Main Tower, one of the tallest structures in the...

01 May 2006

Jin Mao Tower’s Influence on China’s New Innovative Tall Buildings

Mark Sarkisian, Neville Mathias, Eric Long & Aaron Mazeika, SOM

The 56 story, 232 m tall Jinao Tower in Nanjing, China, is a next-generation tower which maximizes performance, efficiency, and occupant experience. Its faceted form...

28 August 2019

In celebration of Jin Mao Tower's 20th anniversary, CTBUH China presents an international conference discussing the historical evolution and development trend of super tall buildings.

17 January 2017

SuperTEC Visit to CTBUH China Office

The CTBUH China Office hosted a visit from SuperTEC, a consortium of researchers and practitioners from Korea University and Dankook University in Seoul.

13 October 2016

Top Company Rankings: The World’s 100 Tallest Buildings

The Council is pleased to announce the Top Company Rankings for numerous disciplines as derived from the list of projects appearing in 100 of the World’s Tallest Buildings.

25 February 2016

CITAB-CTBUH Name 2016 China Tall Building Award Recipients

CITAB and CTBUH are pleased to announce the award recipients for the inaugural CITAB-CTBUH 2016 China Tall Building Awards.

19 September 2014

Jin Mao Tower Technical Tour Report

The Jin Mao Tower, adjacent to the conference venue, provided ample opportunity for exploring the lobby, office section, top floor, observation deck, refuge floor & the Grand Hyatt.

13 March 2014

Whirlwind Tour Stirs Up More Interest in Shanghai Conference

On a second intensive journey inside six months, Executive Director Antony Wood traveled to China to make additional connections and develop further support.

20 September 2012

Jin Mao Technical Tour Report

Standing as an icon of the Shanghai skyline, the Jin Mao tower has been a landmark since its completion in 1999.

22 August 2012

China to Dominate Tall Building Development

Nine of the 20 tallest buildings currently under construction in the world are located in China, which is now leading the way in the development of supertall buildings.

17 July 2011

Path to the CTBUH 2012 Shanghai Congress: Beginnings…

CTBUH Leaders recently traveled to China to attend a CTBUH-Tongji University workshop, and begin the planning of the anticipated 9th World Congress Shanghai 2012.

23 March 2011

CTBUH Presents at Suzhou Elevator Expo

CTBUH Communications Manager Jan Klerks presented on Global Tall Buildings Trends as part of the Expo Trade Fair.