9
Global
Height rank

CITIC Tower

Beijing
Height
1
To Tip:

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest point of the building, irrespective of material or function of the highest element (i.e., including antennae, flagpoles, signage and other functional-technical equipment).

527.7 m / 1,731 ft
2
Architectural:

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the architectural top of the building, including spires, but not including antennae, signage, flag poles or other functional-technical equipment. This measurement is the most widely utilized and is employed to define the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) rankings of the "World's Tallest Buildings."

527.7 m / 1,731 ft
3
Occupied:

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest occupied floor within the building.

515.5 m / 1,691 ft
1 2 3 CITIC Tower Outline
Floors
Above Ground

The number of floors above ground should include the ground floor level and be the number of main floors above ground, including any significant mezzanine floors and major mechanical plant floors. Mechanical mezzanines should not be included if they have a significantly smaller floor area than the major floors below. Similarly, mechanical penthouses or plant rooms protruding above the general roof area should not be counted. Note: CTBUH floor counts may differ from published accounts, as it is common in some regions of the world for certain floor levels not to be included (e.g., the level 4, 14, 24, etc. in Hong Kong).

109
Below Ground

The number of floors below ground should include all major floors located below the ground floor level.

8
Height 527.7 m / 1,731 ft
Floors 109
Official Name
The current legal building name.

CITIC Tower

Other Names
Other names the building has commonly been known as, including former names, common informal names, local names, etc.

China Zun, Zhongguo Zun

Type
CTBUH collects data on two major types of tall structures: 'Buildings' and 'Telecommunications / Observation Towers.' A 'Building' is a structure where at least 50% of the height is occupied by usable floor area. A 'Telecommunications / Observation Tower' is a structure where less than 50% of the structure's height is occupied by usable floor area. Only 'Buildings' are eligible for the CTBUH 'Tallest Buildings' lists.

Building

Status
Completed
Architecturally Topped Out
Structurally Topped Out
Under Construction
Proposed
On Hold
Never Completed
Vision
Competition Entry
Canceled
Proposed Renovation
Under Renovation
Renovated
Under Demolition
Demolished

Completed

Completion

2018

Country
The CTBUH follows the United Nations's definition of Country, and thus uses the lists and codes established by that organization.

China

City
The CTBUH follows the United Nations's definition of City, and thus uses the lists and codes established by that organization.

Beijing

Function
A single-function tall building is defined as one where 85% or more of its usable floor area is dedicated to a single usage. Thus a building with 90% office floor area would be said to be an "office" building, irrespective of other minor functions it may also contain.

A mixed-use tall building contains two or more functions (or uses), where each of the functions occupy a significant proportion of the tower's total space. Support areas such as car parks and mechanical plant space do not constitute mixed-use functions. Functions are denoted on CTBUH "Tallest Building" lists in descending order, e.g., "hotel/office" indicates hotel function above office function.

office

Structural Material
Steel
Both the main vertical/lateral structural elements and the floor spanning systems are constructed from steel. Note that a building of steel construction with a floor system of concrete planks or concrete slab on top of steel beams is still considered a “steel” structure as the concrete elements are not acting as the primary structure.

Reinforced Concrete
Both the main vertical/lateral structural elements and the floor spanning systems are constructed from concrete which has been cast in place and utilizes steel reinforcement bars.

Precast Concrete
Both the main vertical/lateral structural elements and the floor spanning system are constructed from steel reinforced concrete which has been precast as individual components and assembled together on-site.

Mixed-Structure
Utilizes distinct systems (e.g. steel, concrete, timber), one on top of the other. For example, a steel/concrete indicates a steel structural system located on top of a concrete structural system, with the opposite true of concrete/steel.

Composite
A combination of materials (e.g. steel, concrete, timber) are used together in the main structural elements. Examples include buildings which utilize: steel columns with a floor system of reinforced concrete beams; a steel frame system with a concrete core; concrete-encased steel columns; concrete-filled steel tubes; etc. Where known, the CTBUH database breaks out the materials used in a composite building’s core, columns, and floor spanning separately.

composite

Core
Concrete Encased Steel
Columns
Concrete Filled Steel
Floor Spanning
Steel
Energy Label

LEED-CS Gold Precertification, China Certificate of Green Building Label-Three Star

Height
Architectural
Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the architectural top of the building, including spires, but not including antennae, signage, flag poles or other functional-technical equipment. This measurement is the most widely utilized and is employed to define the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) rankings of the "World's Tallest Buildings."

527.7 m / 1,731 ft

To Tip
Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest point of the building, irrespective of material or function of the highest element (i.e., including antennae, flagpoles, signage and other functional-technical equipment).
527.7 m / 1,731 ft
Occupied
Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest occupied floor within the building.
515.5 m / 1,691 ft
Observatory
503.5 m / 1,652 ft
Helipad
Height, measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance, to the building's helipad.
527.7 m / 1,731 ft
Floors Above Ground
The number of floors above ground should include the ground floor level and be the number of main floors above ground, including any significant mezzanine floors and major mechanical plant floors. Mechanical mezzanines should not be included if they have a significantly smaller floor area than the major floors below. Similarly, mechanical penthouses or plant rooms protruding above the general roof area should not be counted. Note: CTBUH floor counts may differ from published accounts, as it is common in some regions of the world for certain floor levels not to be included (e.g., the level 4, 14, 24, etc. in Hong Kong).

109

Floors Below Ground
The number of floors below ground should include all major floors located below the ground floor level.

8

# of Parking Spaces
Number of Parking Spaces refers to the total number of car parking spaces contained within a particular building.

637

# of Elevators
Number of Elevators refers to the total number of elevator cars (not shafts) contained within a particular building (including public, private and freight elevators).

101

Top Elevator Speed
Top Elevator Speed refers to the top speed capable of being achieved by an elevator within a particular building, measured in meters per second.

10 m/s

Tower GFA
Tower GFA refers to the total gross floor area within the tower footprint, not including adjoining podiums, connected buildings or other towers within the development.

350,000 m² / 3,767,369 ft²

Rankings
#
9
Tallest in the World
#
6
Tallest in Asia
#
5
Tallest in China
#
1
Tallest in Beijing
#
3
Tallest Office Building in the World
#
2
Tallest Office Building in Asia
#
2
Tallest Office Building in China
#
1
Tallest Office Building in Beijing
#
7
Tallest Composite Building in the World
#
6
Tallest Composite Building in Asia
#
5
Tallest Composite Building in China
#
1
Tallest Composite Building in Beijing
Construction Schedule
2012

Proposed

2013

Construction Start

2018

Completed

Architect
Concept

Design

Usually involved in the front end design, with a "typical" condition being that of a leadership role through either Schematic Design or Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Architect of Record

Usually takes on the balance of the architectural effort not executed by the "Design Architect," typically responsible for the construction documents, conforming to local codes, etc. May often be referred to as "Executive," "Associate," or "Local" Architect, however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Architect of Record" exclusively.

Structural Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Engineer of Record

The Engineer of Record takes the balance of the engineering effort not executed by the “Design Engineer,” typically responsible for construction documents, conforming to local codes, etc.

MEP Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

WSP
Engineer of Record

The Engineer of Record takes the balance of the engineering effort not executed by the “Design Engineer,” typically responsible for construction documents, conforming to local codes, etc.

Other Consultant

Other Consultant refers to other organizations which provided significant consultation services for a building project (e.g. wind consultants, environmental consultants, fire and life safety consultants, etc).

Façade

These are firms that consult on the design of a building's façade. May often be referred to as "Cladding," "Envelope," "Exterior Wall," or "Curtain Wall" Consultant, however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Façade Consultant" exclusively.

Fire
Property Management
JLL
Vertical Transportation
WSP
Material Supplier

Material Supplier refers to organizations which supplied significant systems/materials for a building project (e.g. elevator suppliers, facade suppliers, etc).

Elevator
Façade Maintenance Equipment
Paint/Coating
Architect
Concept

Design

Usually involved in the front end design, with a "typical" condition being that of a leadership role through either Schematic Design or Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Architect of Record

Usually takes on the balance of the architectural effort not executed by the "Design Architect," typically responsible for the construction documents, conforming to local codes, etc. May often be referred to as "Executive," "Associate," or "Local" Architect, however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Architect of Record" exclusively.

Peer Review
CITIC General Institute of Architectural Design & Research Co., Ltd
Structural Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Engineer of Record

The Engineer of Record takes the balance of the engineering effort not executed by the “Design Engineer,” typically responsible for construction documents, conforming to local codes, etc.

MEP Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

WSP
Engineer of Record

The Engineer of Record takes the balance of the engineering effort not executed by the “Design Engineer,” typically responsible for construction documents, conforming to local codes, etc.

Contractor
Main Contractor

The main contractor is the supervisory contractor of all construction work on a project, management of sub-contractors and vendors, etc. May be referred to as "Construction Manager," however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Main Contractor" exclusively.

China Construction Industrial & Energy Engineering Group Co.,Ltd.; China Construction Third Engineering Bureau Co., Ltd.
Other Consultant

Other Consultant refers to other organizations which provided significant consultation services for a building project (e.g. wind consultants, environmental consultants, fire and life safety consultants, etc).

Energy Concept
Azbil Control Solutions
Façade

These are firms that consult on the design of a building's façade. May often be referred to as "Cladding," "Envelope," "Exterior Wall," or "Curtain Wall" Consultant, however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Façade Consultant" exclusively.

Fire
Landscape
Beijing Forestry University; LAUR Studio
LEED
EMSI
Property Management
Beijing Zhongjibeishi; JLL
Sustainability
Qinghua University
Traffic
MVA Transportation, Planning & Management Consultants
Vertical Transportation
WSP
Way Finding
Rei Design & Planning
Material Supplier

Material Supplier refers to organizations which supplied significant systems/materials for a building project (e.g. elevator suppliers, facade suppliers, etc).

Cladding
Jangho Group Co., Ltd.
Elevator
Façade Maintenance Equipment
HVAC
Hangzhou RUNPAQ Technology
Paint/Coating
Steel
China Construction Steel Structure Corporation

CTBUH Awards & Distinctions

Best Tall Building 400 meters and above 2021 Winner

2021 CTBUH Awards

Best Tall Building 400 meters and above 2019 Award of Excellence

2019 CTBUH Awards

Best Tall Building Asia 2021 Award of Excellence

2021 CTBUH Awards

CTBUH Initiatives

CTBUH Releases Year in Review: Tall Trends of 2018

12 December 2018 - CTBUH News

CTBUH 2019 Award of Excellence Winners Announced

5 December 2018 - Awards

Videos

10 April 2019 | Beijing

Ceremonial Influences Form a Modern Flagship Building for Beijing’s CBD

China Zun is the flagship building of Beijing’s comprehensively planned 30-hectare central business district core. Its gently rising and curving form embodies the historic capital’s...

Research

12 January 2021

The Global Tall Building Picture: Impact of 2020

CTBUH Research

The tall buildings completed in 2020 have pushed the global average height of the 100 tallest buildings to 399 meters. Across the year, 14 buildings...

About CITIC Tower

CITIC Tower will be the flagship building of Beijing’s comprehensively planned 30-hectare central business district core.

The tower’s gently rising and curving form resembles an ancient Chinese ceremonial vessel, called the “zun.” The design concept is that of a transforming shell that gradually bends to create a dramatic form. This concept is also applied to other key elements of the tower, including the entrances, ground-floor lobby, and observation deck. At the base, the tower thrusts into the ground with massive corner supports, while the exterior shell is gently lifted up and stretched forward at the four sides. The design physically extends the lobby outward, forming dynamic drop-off spaces. At the top, the exterior envelope becomes more transparent at the observation deck and allows more visibility to the inner trumpet-shaped business center, which lights up at night, forming a beacon that will be visible throughout the city.

Compared to a typically straight or tapering supertall tower form, the concave tower profile offers more valuable prime-floor spaces and ample space for window washing, as well as other support systems, at the top of the tower. While the large top poses significant structural challenges, the larger base provides an opportunity for structural balance, formal contrast, and preferred core-to-perimeter distances.

In a city with the highest seismic fortification requirement of the major cities in China, the structural system was particularly sensitive to adjustments in the complex form of the building. Architects and engineers utilized parametric modeling to greatly expedite the design and coordination process to ensure that the design achieved both an iconic form and a solid structural system.

CTBUH Awards & Distinctions

Best Tall Building 400 meters and above 2021 Winner

2021 CTBUH Awards

Best Tall Building 400 meters and above 2019 Award of Excellence

2019 CTBUH Awards

Best Tall Building Asia 2021 Award of Excellence

2021 CTBUH Awards

Structural Engineering Award 2019 Award of Excellence

2019 CTBUH Awards

Fire & Risk Engineering Award 2021 Winner

2021 CTBUH Awards

10 April 2019 | Beijing

Ceremonial Influences Form a Modern Flagship Building for Beijing’s CBD

China Zun is the flagship building of Beijing’s comprehensively planned 30-hectare central business district core. Its gently rising and curving form embodies the historic capital’s...

18 September 2014 | Beijing

China Zun: Shaping the Future Skyline of Beijing

Due to the site location, China Zun has been a high-profile project from the very beginning. The new height of 528m would make the China...

18 September 2014 | Beijing

Interview: Nengjun Luo

Thursday 18th September 2014. Shanghai, China. Nengjun Luo of CITIC HEYE Investment CO., LTD. is interviewed by Chris Bentley during the 2014 CTBUH Shanghai Conference...

18 September 2014 | Beijing

Would Software Replace Engineers?: A Case Study on the Structural Design of Beijing "China Zun" Tower

In the past, engineers have used hand calculation to carry out structural design, usually with a simplified model. Finite element analysis was then broadly used...

17 September 2014 | Beijing

Design Challenges of the 3 Tallest Buildings in North/ East/ South China

This presentation describes the MEP and VTS design challenges of the tallest buildings in three major cities in China; namely, Beijing, Suzhou and Guangzhou. The...

11 June 2013 | Beijing

Interview: Integration of Tall Buildings

Sir Terry Farrell & Stephan Krummeck of Farrells are interviewed by Jeff Herzer during the 2013 CTBUH London Conference at The Brewery, London. Terry and...

12 January 2021

The Global Tall Building Picture: Impact of 2020

CTBUH Research

The tall buildings completed in 2020 have pushed the global average height of the 100 tallest buildings to 399 meters. Across the year, 14 buildings...

20 March 2020

Tall + Urban Innovation 2020: Dominant Trends

CTBUH Research

Providing a global overview of tall building development, design and construction, the CTBUH Awards Program and related Tall + Urban Innovation Conference annually survey projects,...

20 March 2020

The Tallest 20 in 2020: Predictions vs. Reality

CTBUH Research

In the first edition of the 2012 Journal, CTBUH published a Tall Buildings in Numbers study titled Tallest 20 in 2020: Era of the Megatall—The...

20 March 2020

The Tallest 20 in 2020: Then and Now

CTBUH Research

This research paper undertakes a review of the 2012 report by the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, “Tallest 20 in 2020: Entering the...

30 January 2020

The Global Tall Building Picture: Impact of 2019

CTBUH Research

In 2019, 126 buildings of 200 meters’ height or greater were completed. This was a 13.7 percent decrease from 146 in 2018. The total number...

25 April 2019

Best Tall Buildings 2019: Dominant Trends

CTBUH

This year, CTBUH has vastly expanded its Awards program to consider the Best Tall Building category through several classes of height, rather than geographic regions,...

31 January 2019

China Zun: Beijing’s New Icon, 2018’s Tallest

Wuren Wang, CITIC HEYE Investment Co. Ltd.

At 528 meters, China Zun was the tallest building completed in 2018, and became the new tallest building in Beijing. It is the anchor of...

31 January 2019

The Global Tall Building Picture: Impact of 2018

CTBUH Research

In 2018, 143 buildings of 200 meters’ height or greater were completed. This is a slight decrease from 2017’s record-breaking total of 147, and it...

12 December 2018

Year in Review: Tall Trends of 2018

CTBUH Research

The astronomical growth in tall building construction observed over the past decade continued in 2018, though the total number of completed buildings of 200 meters’...

01 September 2018

Developments of Structural Systems Toward Mile-High Towers

Kyoung Sun Moon, Yale University School of Architecture

Tall buildings which began from about 40 m tall office towers in the late 19th century have evolved into mixed-use megatall towers over 800 m....

12 December 2018

CTBUH Releases Year in Review: Tall Trends of 2018

The astronomical growth in tall building construction observed over the past decade continued in 2018, though the total number of completed buildings of 200 meters’ or greater height leveled off at 143, after hitting an all-time record of 147 in 2017.

5 December 2018

CTBUH 2019 Award of Excellence Winners Announced

These projects will be represented at the CTBUH 2019 Tall + Urban Innovation Conference, where they will compete in real time for winning distinctions in each category.

22 June 2018

CTBUH Participates in the China Zun Forum

CTBUH participated in the China Zun Forum which explored how the China Zun tower can serve as an innovative model for the international tall building industry.

17 January 2018

2018 Tall Building Predictions

Check out all of our 2018 Tall Building Predictions, and dive into the full 2017 Tall Building Year in Review data report.

7 September 2017

Queensland Infrastructure Seminar 3

The CTBUH Australia Chapter’s Brisbane Committee held the third of its 2017 breakfast seminar series on Queensland Infrastructure.

13 October 2016

Top Company Rankings: The World’s 100 Tallest Buildings

The Council is pleased to announce the Top Company Rankings for numerous disciplines as derived from the list of projects appearing in 100 of the World’s Tallest Buildings.

8 July 2016

2016 China-Japan-Korea Tall Building Forum

The third China-Japan-Korea Tall Building Forum was held at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, on the topic of "Innovative Motion Engineering in Tall Buildings."

23 April 2016

China Zun Visit

Nearly 20 local professionals came together for a visit to the under construction China Zun Tower, the future tallest building in Beijing.

21 September 2014

Beijing Regional Tour Report

Attendees of the Beijing tour toured the new CBD development on the east side of town, projected to contain 15 towers, many of whose foundations were already visibly underway.

13 March 2014

Whirlwind Tour Stirs Up More Interest in Shanghai Conference

On a second intensive journey inside six months, Executive Director Antony Wood traveled to China to make additional connections and develop further support.